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VII. Doxology and Chants
“For Thine is the Kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever Amen.”
The last part of the Lord’s Prayer that is in a parenthesis is translated “for Thine is the kingdom, and the power and the glory forever” in the Korean Revised Version. It is known as the doxology or the glorious song. The doxology reveals the fulfillment and superiority of the Lord’s Prayer. One of those who studied the Lord’s prayer, Calvin said, “it is appropriate not to omit the doxology.” When we pray, we pray not only for our needs, but also give praise and thanks as necessary items. Therefore, the doxology that was added is proper words of this spirit, which leads us to communicate with God. The Westminster Catechism describes what the doxology of the Lord’s Prayer teaches us. It teaches us that the last part of the Lord’s Prayer “… forever Amen” leads us pray in faith and praise him in prayer, the power, the kingdom and the glory are Father’s. We say Amen as a sign that God will listen to our prayer and of witnessing of our desire. I now want to discuss the meaning of each word and items that show the fulfillment of the Prayer while viewing what Jeremias said about the doxology. He said, “it is unthinkable that a prayer finishes with a petition” to emphasize the doxology.
1. Is the doxology of the Lord’s Prayer a part of the gospel of Matthew or was it added later?
The Korean Revised Version put the doxology in a parenthesis with an explanation, “an ancient script does not have the doxology.” The gospel of Luke does not have the doxology. There are many scholars who have a standard criticism of evaluating this with ancient scrolls. According to the quality of the scrolls and their distribution, many scholars believed that the doxology was added later. One of modern theologians, Metzger said that Matthew’s original Lord’s Prayer did not have the doxology and the doxology was added later. He also tried to remove the view that the doxology is a part of the Scripture. Ambrosius used the Lord’s Prayer without the doxology in his writing of De Sacramentis. He only interpreted the Lord’s Prayer according to each petition. However, I think it is not acceptable to exclude the doxology from the Lord’s Prayer. According to Harner, “Understanding the Lord’s Prayer” the early version shows that when Jesus taught the Lord’s Prayer first initially, he did not include the doxology. Another reason for this is that the Lord’s Prayer was an informal structure that the disciples could modify. It is Jewish culture to finish a prayer with a doxology. So Jesus might not have wanted the Lord’s Prayer to end with the words like temptation and evil. He may clearly want his disciples to finish the Prayer with a doxology. To constitute the doxology, they probably used their rich knowledge of Jewish religion. Jeremias agrees with this opinion. It is highly possible for the disciples to have used their Jewish religious background to finish the Lord’s Prayer with a doxology. Didache is a good resource to study of the early church, has the doxology except “the kingdom and Amen”. However, it shows that even if the sentence is different, there are no conceptual differences. Those who insist on ignoringthe doxology of the Lord’s Prayer do not have a historical resource. It is only their assumption. Although Jesus did not teach the Lord’s Prayer with the doxology, it is wise and right to include it as the early church and the disciples did. We should pray the Lord’s Prayer with the doxology as our fore fathers did to praise the Lord. It is our beautiful and faithful heritage.
2. Can we find the same style of the doxology in the Scripture?
There are three different types of the doxology that were used in the bible.
1) Through holy and joyful praises
2) Through pledging to practice all petitions
3) Praying with an clear assurance that God will listen all prayers. We can conclude that true concept of our prayers through the doxology. Many prayers in the Psalms in the Old Testament have endless prayers and praises. First, in the Old Testament, the same doxology as in the Lord’s prayer was used in many different books including Psalms: “Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the majesty and the splendor, for everything in heaven and earth is yours” (1 Chronicles 29:11). “Praise be to his glorious name forever; may the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen” (Psalm 72:19). “The LORD reigns forever, your God, O Zion, for all generations. Praise the LORD” (Psalm 146:10). Second, in the New Testament, Paul and other authors used the same doxology as the Lord’s Prayer: “To him be glory for ever and ever. Amen” (2 Timothy 4:18). “Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing” (Revelation 5:12). Prayers that were written in the Scriptures by the saints who were used by God harmonize with “you are the praise of Israel” (Psalm 22:3). The doxology of the Lord’s Prayer teaches us that the Lord is the alpha and omega of all praises. The doxology began with praising our Father and ended with praising our Lord Jesus Christ who is the glorious ruler of the universe. The Lord’s Prayer as a model of prayers teaches that only the prayers that includes thanks and praises can go to the throne of God in heaven. The doxology will occur within glorious worship until the Lord comes again. Like true sincere prayers of believers. I not only pray the Lord’s Prayer, but also sing the Lord’s Prayer before my sermon in worship. I pray for the fullness of the Holy Spirit and hold God’s hand that blesses me in my petitions.
3. Why does the doxology start with the word, “for”?
The Greek word for the word, “for” is oti. The Greek word is used in four different styles. First, following the ancient scrolls, those do not have the word. Second, having the doxology, but in a parenthesis. This indicates that authorized scrolls omit the doxology. Third, writing the doxology as a footnote. Fourth, writing the doxology at the end of the Lord’s Prayer as the last sentence. Korean Versions translate the word as “Dea-gae (probably),” “Hok-eun (or)” under the influence of Chinese Versions. It also could be translated as “because.” However, most English Versions use the word, “for” rather than “because” because of the Greek word gar. Korean Versions should be translated as “Ee-nun (for).” However, it was translated as “Dea-gae” considering the whole content of the Lord’s Prayer rather than translating it literally. It cannot be ignored that the kingdom of God is the main idea of the Lord’s Prayer and it belongs to the Father. So one of the phrases that can be translated with “Dae-gae” is because the kingdom and the power and the glory are forever. This last phrase could be placed at the beginning of the Lord’s Prayer. However, by placing it at the end of the prayer, it emphasizes the relationships of each petition. There could be three translations, “Dae-gae,” “Ee-nun” and “Tta-moon-ae.” A correct translation is important. But the purpose of the doxology of the Lord’s Prayer is to praise and thank Jesus Christ who taught the prayer and receives as we pray it.
4. What is the relationship between the meaning of the Lord’s Prayer and that of the doxology?
The doxology of the Lord’s Prayer keeps the balance of the whole. Matthew Henny said “there is a relationship between the first three petitions and the Thou-Petitions. That is, ‘our Father who are in heaven’ and hallowed be Thy name’ connect with ‘glory;Thy kingdom come’ in the doxology, and ‘kingdom; Thy will be done’ in the doxology relates to ‘power’ in the doxology. As the three petitions describe our responsibilities, the body of the Lord’s Prayer and the doxology it relate to one another. ‘Name,’ ‘Kingdom’ and ‘will’ these can be the center of the first half of the Lord’s Prayer and they harmonizes with ‘Kingdom,’ ‘Power’ and ‘Glory’ in the doxology. We have so far discussed the We-Petitions and Thou-Petitions while illustrating the meanings of the Lord’s Prayer. So, now I will discuss the meanings in it through the relationship between the body of the Lord’s Prayer and the doxology of it.
First, Kingdom is Yours. “Thy Kingdom come” relates to “Kingdom” that belongs to Him forever in the doxology. What kind of kingdom do we praise when we praise? It is the kingdom where God receives praises and rules over everything. God is the Lord of the kingdom. We are his people and ought to praise him and pray to Him. God is the one who answers our praises and prayers.
Jesus Christ said that God’s Kingdom was, is and will be: it was- “when you see Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God” (Luke 13:28). It is- “nor will people say, ‘Here it is,’ or ‘There it is,’ because the kingdom of God is within you” (Luke 17:21). It will be- “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea” (Revelation 21:1). When we act properly as children of God according to his guidance, we are in his kingdom. The fulfillment of the kingdom is in the future yet so we pray, “the Kingdom is Yours” whenever we pray the doxology. The Greek word for kingdom includes the meanings of ruling and sovereignty. So, God’s ruling has to be in the presence of God’s kingdom on earth. When Jesus, who is the Lord of the Kingdom,rules my heart I will be satisfied with the kingdom, have joy and praise him. When we pray the doxology under Jesus’ reign, the doxology can be a true praise. If the reign of Jesus continues in our life, home, society and church, our doxology can be a model of our prayer that has our thanks and praises.
Second, Authority is Yours. The third petition of the Lord’s Prayer, “as it is in heaven” relates to “the power forever” in the doxology. God has authority in glory. So, he fulfills in heaven and on earth what he wants. God has universal authority and power and he rules the universe with these and receives praises. God is the ultimate Ruler in Creation, Will and Grace. The authority indicates that God has no need to practice his authority and fulfills his will on earth and in heaven. God’s authority is the true one that fulfills his will in grace and love. It is that his authority defeated king Pharaoh’s great authority and delivered Israelites from Egypt, divided the red sea, water from the rock, gave manna and led them with pillars of fire and clouds for 40 years in the wildness. Jesus,who did God’s work with the God’s authority explained that I have authority to get rid of and authority to gain (Jn. 10:18), Jesus is the one who can rule all the authority on earth. Through this authority, he healed the sick, cast out the demons, raised the dead, and experienced authority of the resurrection, and ascended into heaven. He will come back as the Lord of lords, King of kings and as the King to judge with authority. However, be careful of Satan’s authority that comes with the earthly authority. In Matthew 7:22, “Many will say to me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophecy in your name, and in your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?’ ” Jesus replied in Matthew 7:23, “ Then I will tell them plainly, ‘I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers!’ ” We should not be tempted by those who perform miracles and signs with Satan’s authority. When we see that mass media publicize Satan’s power as the Holy Spirit’s power, we know how strong Satan’s power is. Satan worshipers use Satan’s power. They tempt Protestant pastors with money and ideas. They also tempt Christians to stay away from church. They even fast for their purposes. Of course, God does not listen these kinds of prayer. Christians, who know that earthly authority and Satan’s authority are not stronger than the authority of Jesus, should depend on the true authority. There are several earthly authorities big and small, good and evil, harmful and beneficial authorities. People do not know that all authorities come from God. So, some steal God’s authority by saying, ‘this is my authority.’ They will be under the authority of darkness. When they rule, they misuse their authorities to rule over people and to take advantage of others. They can be traitors of humanity. However, the apostle, Paul, said, “Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God” (Romans 13:1) and “Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves” (Romans 13:2). Therefore, we have to be sure that all authorities come from God and manage them well. We have to remember “Yours, O LORD, is the kingdom; you are exalted as head over all” (1 Chronicles 29:11). Jesus is the only one who has the true eternal authority of God. He has the authority to forgive (Matt 9:6). He has the authority to cast out demons and gives this to us (Mk 3:15). His teaching and words have the authority of God (Matt 28:18, Lk 4:32). He has the authority of resurrection that rules death and gives life (Jn 11, 1 Cor 15). He has the authority of healing and gives it to us (Lk 9:1). He gives us the right to be children of God (Jn 1:12). He is the foundation of authority that rules all people. All his authority is original the same as God the Father’s. Jesus destroys authorities that are against salvation. The Greek word for authority is exousia and English word is EXORCIST, which means one who, casts out demons. The reason Jesus was given all these authorities (Matt 28:18) is for all the nations to obey the gospel and for us to carry the command. Praise the Lord, here we have a reason to praise “and the power for ever.” It is so moving that we finish the Lord’s prayer with the doxology, “…and the glory forever.” Whenever I pray “and the glory forever” in the doxology, I experience its impression and influence by the grace of the Holy Spirit and pray with joy and heart.
Third, the glory is Yours. In the first petition of the Lord’s prayer, “hallowed be Thy name” relates to “and the glory forever” in the doxology. The glory is only for the forever-exalted one and receives worship forever.
1) The glory of God indicates his nature and completion or his presence. “The heavens declare the glory of God” (Psalm 19:1).
2) The glory is eternal and promised to the believers. “That the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God” (Romans 8:21). “And the God of all grace, who called you to his eternal glory in Christ, after you have suffered a little while, will himself restore you and make you strong, firm and steadfast” (1 Peter 5:10).
3) The glory of God appeared to Jesus Christ. “The glory of the One and Only” (John 1:14).
4) The glory of God appeared by God’s power. “Your right hand, O LORD, was majestic in power. Your right hand, O LORD” (Exodus 15:6).
5) The glory of God appeared when believers were martyred. “But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God” (Acts 7:55).
6) The glory of God presents in his church. “For the LORD will rebuild Zion and appear in his glory” (Psalm 102:16).
7) The believers will be risen in the glory of Christ. “Who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body” (Philippians 3:21).
8) He reveals his glory through miracles and signs. “This, the first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee. He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him” (John 2:11).
God is the One who is alone in his glory. The glory is the ultimate purpose all of his works and Jesus always kept his glory. Jesus receives the glory because he is the only one who answers prayers. Our doxology, which we pray in his name, went “Praise be to his glorious name forever; may the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen” (Psalm 72:19). What is our ultimate purpose and reason for our lives? The Scripture, that is, the word of God teaches us the purpose of our lives. It is to bring glory and glorify God in our lives. Paul said to the Corinthians, “So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God” (1 Corinthians 10:31). When he sent a letter to the Christians in Rome, he stated the reasons why he glorified God in his life, “For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be the glory forever! Amen” (Romans 11:36). Its focus is that God should be the center of our lives, words and deeds and that we live our lives only for his glory. Jesus spoke to us about the life that glorifies God, “This is to my Father's glory, that you bear much fruit, showing yourselves to be my disciples” (John 15:8). Paul told the Philippians that his expectation was that they may bear righteous fruits and bring glory to God, “filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ-- to the glory and praise of God” (Philippians 1:11). If the purpose of a tree is to bear fruits, trees without fruits cannot please their master. Those who do not bear righteous fruits cannot please God either. The life for the glory of God and current glory for earthly glory can be contrasted as following: First, temporary. “For, All men are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall” (1 Peter 1:24). Second, current glory becomes a source of Satan’s temptation. “Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor” (Matthew 4:8). Third,glory change to disgrace. “The more the priests increased, the more they sinned against me; they exchanged their Glory for something disgraceful” (Hosea 4:7). Fourth, when trying to earn glory from people, it changes to shame. “So when you give to the needy, do not announce it with trumpets, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and on the streets, to be honored by men. I tell you the truth, they have received their reward in full” (Matthew 6:2). “Their destiny is destruction, their god is their stomach, and their glory is in their shame. Their mind is on earthly things” (Philippians 3:19). Fifth, the glory of men ends with their death. “For he will take nothing with him when he dies, his splendor will not descend with him” (Psalm 49:17). Sixth, the glory of men is wisdom, richness and power with nothing to be proud of. “This is what the LORD says: ‘Let not the wise man boast of his wisdom or the strong man boast of his strength or the rich man boast of his riches’ ” (Jeremiah 9:23). “So that no one may boast before him” (1Corinthians 1:29). “Let us not become conceited, provoking and envying each other” (Galatians 5:26). There are many glories on earth that were made by men based on humanism. Nobel Prize winners who contributed their lives for the world bring benefits to the world and it is honour for them. However, for much less achievements people receive medals, publish memorial plates, give degrees and applause. It could be an encouragement for the individuals, but when it is only for some one’s current glory, it is a rotten glory. Jesus came in human flesh for the glory of God. He lived a life that was filled with the glory and grace of God (Jn. 1:14). Jesus Christ devoted his whole life as a glorious life to God. Take a look at those who lived for the glory of God after Jesus. They are the main people in history. God entrusted history to them time after time. When we listen to Handel’s Messiah that was composed only for the glory of God, we will be inspired by giving glory to God. I know that Handel composed the Messiah in tears by the glorious revelation of God. When this music was composed on April 13, 1743 in London, the king of England, George II, stood up by the overwhelming inspiration. We should be able to pray the doxology by standing before the glory of God. Reformers faith was constant with the word “only.” Our salvation is by sola gratia and sola fide. Our foundation of faith and deeds is sola Scriptura and our object of faith is sola Christo. Our purpose of life is for sola deo gloria. There were three stonemasons who worked to build a church building. When one of them was asked, “why do you work? He said, “I work to survive.” When the same question was given to other one, he said, “I work so that I can earn daily bread.” When the same question was given to the third one, he said “for the glory of God.” The third person has a clear purpose of life and lifted it up into the glory of God. If the ultimate purpose of the world is to bring glory to God, we have to check where our purpose and faith are. There is nothing with which we can replace our purpose. Death-view and worldview are existing for the glory of God. Sometimes, even though we are in darkness, in a valley of death, we should fully give our life to God. The apostle Paul confessed, “I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us” (Romans 8:18). When this confession becomes ours, we can praise with “and the glory forever” in the doxology. After I received Jesus as my Lord, My God, I wrote a banner, “do all to the glory of God” and put it in my office and prayer room. Whenever I see the banner, I remind myself to live a life for the glory of God. God taught me two ways to live for his glory. One of them is about the attitude of prayers. I was inspired by the Psalmist, “Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I call to you all day long” (Psalm 86:3). “Hear my prayer, O LORD; listen to my cry for mercy” (Psalm 86:6). When I earnestly pray, God, who is good, listens and shows me a sign of grace (Ps 86:17). It is my confession to pray the doxology daily with the experience of his grace. The other is about my attitude of praises. I try to praise God seven times per day as the Psalmist (Ps 119:164). My prayer starts with the praise of Yahweh. My praise that I give with my whole body,from the bottom of my soul, continues to become the grace that opens my prayers. I continue my prayer with thanksgiving and repentance.
Fourth, for father forever. I already discussed “kingdom, power and glory.” I now will discuss about the last part of the doxology “for Father forever.”
1) The first part of the Lord’s Prayer, “Our Father who are in heaven…” relates to the doxology, “praise Father.” In this phrase, it is emphasized that God centered prayers, prayers about the Kingdom, acknowledge God’s authority in prayers and the prayers are focused on God’s glory. It assures that the foundation, power, start, conclusion, answer and solution of prayers are in God. How encouraging the phrase is, “for Father forever.” It is an important prayer reminding us that God is near us and the power of the Father is with us. We should praise God that he delivered us through the blood of Jesus Christ and adopted us to be his children and to call him a “Abba Father” (Rom 8:15, Gal 4:6). God as Abba Father, provides for his children’s needs. “As a father has compassion on his children, so the LORD has compassion on those who fear him” (Psalm 103:13). We, as parents, know that our children ask us to supply their needs. When we give things to the children who always ask for wants, we feel sorrow when we can only give things they need. However, when the children ask us for their needs when they respect us, we feel happy and provide things they need joyfully. When we ask God for our needs we should ask in a way that God would be pleased. The phrase shows us that when we ask God we should exalt, respect God and praise him with joy.
2) The Lord’s Prayer has glory with the word “forever” in the doxology. The word “forever” reemphasizes that the kingdom of God, the power and the glory is forever and supports the fulfillment, eternity and clearness of prayers. Bengel said, “When all children of God reach to the ultimate purpose of their faith, there will rise the pure doxology in heaven. They will praise the name of God, the kingdom has come, the will has fulfilled, forgive our sins, passed the tests, we has been delivered from evil. The kingdom and the power is his forever Amen.” The One who receives our prayers is God who is from eternity to eternity (Ps 90:2). Jesus Christ who revealed God, the ultimate resolution of prayers and taught the model of prayer is the same yesterday, today and forever (Heb. 13:8). How great and universal the word “forever” is! The word was used by Jews often to praise God. They also used it to against heresies. There are no eternal things on earth, all prosperity and honour withered away. Whatever men made including great arts, nobles, science and knowledge cannot be eternal. Human’s love and friendship are not eternal either. However, Yahweh has the eternal heart that yearns eternally because he gave us the image to love eternity (Gen. 1:26, 27). So, we know that God is the only one eternal. Therefore, the kingdom, the power and the glory neither change nor diminish. There will be no end for these and they are eternal. What is our eternal hope? It is to live in the new heaven and new earth with all believers who were delivered by the blood of Christ and with the Father who receives praises from the believers and angels forever. So when we pray the Lord’s Prayer, we should understand it clearly and look to the eternal future rather than to present things. We should also connect the present things with the future ones. “Now to him who is able to do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine, according to his power that is at work within us, 21 to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus throughout all generations, for ever and ever! Amen” (Ephesians 3:20-21).
5. The word, “Amen” the very last of the Lord’s Prayer and the end of the doxology (Matt 6:13).
The word ‘Amen’ can be applied to the Lord’s Prayer in whole. That is, “hollowed be Thy name Amen” until the doxology “for Thine is the kingdom, and the power and the glory forever Amen.” The word “Amen” relates to all petitions in the Lord’s Prayer. Amen is the decision of all hope of prayers and faith. The Hebrew word for Amen used to mean certain and true, and later it changed to mean believe and agree. This started with Moses and Joshua (Deut 27:11-26). It was when the Israelites gathered together on Mount Gerizim and Ebal pray for both blessings and cursing. All people were required to say Amen.
First, Amen in the Old Testament. 1) It was used as an answer to Yahweh. It was also a sign that one agrees with others. It recognizes other’s righteousness and when you agree with it you used the word, Amen. “He said, "Amen! May the LORD do so! May the LORD fulfill the words you have prophesied by bringing the articles of the LORD's house and all the exiles back to this place from Babylon” (Jeremiah 28:6). 2) It was a religious word for either Jews or Christians. It was used to agree with others’ prayers and to respond to praises for God. “Praise be to the LORD, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Then all the people said "Amen" and "Praise the LORD” (1 Chronicles 16:36). 3) It was used as an oath to God to keep his law and take his punishment when one had disobeyed his law. “I also shook out the folds of my robe and said, "In this way may God shake out of his house and possessions every man who does not keep this promise. So may such a man be shaken out and emptied!" At this the whole assembly said, "Amen," and praised the LORD. And the people did as they had promised” (Nehemiah 5:13). “May this water that brings a curse enter your body so that your abdomen swells and your thigh wastes away. Then the woman is to say, ‘Amen. So be it’ ” (Numbers 5:22). “Cursed is the man who carves an image or casts an idol-- a thing detestable to the LORD, the work of the craftsman's hands-- and sets it up in secret. Then all the people shall say, ‘Amen!’ ” (Deuteronomy 27:15). 4) It was used to indicate devotion and loyalty.
Second, Amen in the New Testament. 1) Response of the promise of Christ through God. “For no matter how many promises God has made, they are "Yes" in Christ. And so through him the "Amen" is spoken by us to the glory of God” (2 Corinthians 1:20). 2) Response of Prayer. “If you are praising God with your spirit, how can one who finds himself among those who do not understand say ‘Amen’ to your thanksgiving, since he does not know what you are saying?” (1 Corinthians 14:16). 3) When finishing prayers. “The God of peace be with you all. Amen” (Romans 15:33). 4) Beginning of the doxology and the end of it. “Saying: ‘Amen! Praise, glory, wisdom, thanks, honor, power, and strength are to our God forever and ever. Amen!’ ” (Revelation 7:12). Most of the apostles’ letters respond with an Amen at the end of the doxology (Rom 9:5, Gal 1:5, Phil 4:20, 1Tim 1:17, 1 Pet 4:11, Heb 13:12). 5) At the end of the letters. “The grace of the Lord Jesus be with God's people. Amen.” (Revelation 22:21).
Third, as has already been mentioned, Amen in the Scriptures was used in several different ways. 1) Amen at the beginning of the word is to assure others’ words. “Benaiah son of Jehoiada answered the king, "Amen! May the LORD, the God of my lord the king, so declare it.” (1 Kings 1:36). 2) When a person said Amen it is to encourage him/her to confess truth in the Old Testament. It appears in the confessions and praises of believers (Num. 5:22, Deut 27:15-17, Jer 28:6). 3) When they Amen with the people, they used it to praise the holy name of God, glorify him and thank him. 4) Amen used to close the word occurred in the New Testament many times too. It was written in several places inletters and used as an answer of the worship doxology and petitions (Rom 1:25, Phil 4:20, 1 Tim 1:17).
Fourth, About Jesus Christ and Amen. 1) Jesus is the origin of Amen and it is his name too. “To the angel of the church in Laodicea write: These are the words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the ruler of God's creation” (Revelation 3:14). 2) Amen applies to Jesus who is true. So, whenever Jesus taught the word he said, “truly.” Jesus used Amen as the meaning of true. In John, Amen was used 25 times as repeated “truly, truly.” The first one is in John 1:51 and the last one is in 21:8. John has several reasons to apply Amen about Jesus. Gracious and assure Amen 50 times in the gospel of John, inspiration and worship Amen in Revelation 1:6-7, glorious prediction Amen in Revelation 3:14 and joyous waiting Amen Revelation 22:20. 3) Amen means that Jesus is with us. Jesus Christ is our Mediator. When we pray and praise in Jesus name who is the Mediator, we ought to respond with an Amen. “The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom. To him be glory for ever and ever. Amen” (2 Timothy 4:18). 4) Amen is our confession to Jesus as his witnesses. Jesus himself lived as the Amen and the royal, true witness (Rev. 3:14). Witnesses’ live life who follow the true witness should be an Amen. I discussed Amen’s usage in the bible in general. The amen should be also applied in our personal life. The apostle Paul, who followed the first Amen model, Jesus Christ said, “For no matter how many promises God has made, they are ‘Yes’ in Christ. And so through him the "Amen" is spoken by us to the glory of God” (2 Corinthians 1:20). Paul proclaimed that all believers should say Amen. i. The faith of Amen are leads us to have a positive lifestyle in Jesus Christ. Christians’ faith should be ‘Yes’ (Amen) in obeying the word of God (2 Cor 1:20). This faith leads us to live a positive and active life and sanctifies us to be holy. ii. It is the faith following the word of God and the promises of God. “For no matter how many promises God has made, they are ‘Yes’ in Christ. And so through him the "Amen" is spoken by us to the glory of God” (2 Corinthians 1:20). The promises of God are faithful and unchangeable. Those who believe in the promises will be fulfilled in Christ and can confess Amen. iii. It is to live a life to glorify God. The amen faith is with those who do not lose their hope in hardships but look for glorious blessings of God in troubles. “I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us” (Romans 8:18). Paul’s amen faith looked for the future glory in the midst of troubles and wrote Jesus’ amen life, the truth of faith, with the inspiration, “Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered” (Hebrews 5:8). The life that considers sufferings as benefits (Ps 119:71), no shame even in sufferings (2 Tim 2:1-2), suffer according to the will of God (1 Pet 4:19) is clearly an amen life. God is glorified by their amen lives (2 Cor 1:20). I now finish the Lord’s Prayer that starts with “hallowed be Thy name” and finishes with Amen. The amen helps us to pray the Lord’s Prayer with an assurance of “it is true” and “may it be so.” Amen is a closure of prayers those have true confessions of faith. It connects the Lord’s prayer, which is the model of prayers and the doxology that was inherited from the apostles until the Second Coming of the Lord. It leads us to have a clear assurance of our prayers regarding what we think and believe. The Amen faith shines its light through those who live pray model prayers and practice them in their lives. At this point, the Lord’s Prayer, that the Lord has taught, and the doxology, inherited from the apostles, will be a living place where the kingdom and the power and the glory are revealed forever. When this happens, the Amen will be like what Jerome said, “the Amen after the intercessory prayers and praises in the early church was like the sound of waves and thunders. Let’s check ourselves that were confessing Amen and Amen faith while we pray the Lord’s Prayer and the doxology.
I discussed that the doxology in the Lord’s Prayer praises Jesus Christ as the glorious King of kings and finishes with an Amen response. It is very clear that praises and thanks are necessary elements of prayers. A. W. Pink stated that, 1) As an explanation of holy and joyful praises, 2) As a discussion of practice of all the petitions, 3) As heavenly assurance of that God will listen to prayers and answer them. Our Lord suggested the true elements of prayers to us in the Lord’s Prayer. Prayers that were written by the Holy Spirit in the Psalms of the Old Testament indicatesthe supremacy and fulfillment of the connection between prayers and praises. We can summarize our discussions of the Lord’s Prayer and the doxology while considering the relationship between the Lord’s prayer and the doxology and their influence on our practical life. We also consider how their instructions influenced and are applied in our lives. We can summarize it in several points. First, it clearly shows that the Lord’s Prayer and the doxology of praise have to be connected with a thankful heart. Second, the praise of the doxology suggests that we should pray the Thou-Petition with the most reverent heart. Third, It shows that we should completely obey the Lord who receives all praises. We should also serve as humble servants without names and honour. Fourth, it shows that we ought to serve the Lord with a loyal servant is heart the God who receives praises through the praise of the doxology. It has to be our testimony that we serve our Lord until death. Fifth, our plain prayers enter into the gate of blessings while praising the glory of the throne and through thanksgivings by the praises of the doxology.
When we are sure of the place and importance of the doxology, our all petitions acknowledge the sovereign authority of God, and confess that the kingdom and the power and the glory are his. This is the believers’ duty. I already indicated that the doxology is praise and a full of thanks, and the original factor of prayer is praises and thanks. I did my survey on Korean Christians’ concept of prayer for my thesis. 86.4% of the participants of the survey answered positively of the question whether they pray with praises when they pray. They also answered the question ‘why do you include praises in your prayers?’ Their answers were, 1) for their earnest request (43%), 2) because it is a biblical method (9.6%), 3) because they believe God will answer prayers more effectively (6.7%), 4) because others do so that way (0.3%), 5) because a spiritual leader leads in that way(9.3%), 6) because of psychological reasons (15.4%). According to the survey, Korean Christians’ concept of prayer focuses on praying with praises and emphasizes the spiritual side that is emotional and full of grace. However, only one out of ten knew that it is a biblical method. Indicates need of prayer training, which would teach that prayers relate to the praises and praise would continue into prayers. It also shows that there is a need of a theology of praise. The word, ‘Amen’ that we add at the end of our prayers means 1) our lives and prayers are truly as it is as we pray (77.5%), 2) Jewish method (0.7%), 3) without knowing the meaning of it (1.8%), 4) way to conclude a prayer (10%). When I see that seven out of ten pray their prayers with Amen, I believe that our prayers will be accomplished as they are prayer. I hope we pray giving our loyalty and devotion to the Lord of our lives. I hope that the doxology will be our confession of thanks and belief of the Second Coming of Jesus, the new heaven and earth, and the eternal kingdom. For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever. Amen. I also hope that we will have the answers to our prayers and assurance whenever we pray to the Father who is the object of our prayer, the Lord’s Prayer.
1. Is the doxology of the Lord’s Prayer a part of the prayer in Matthew or added later?
2. Can we find the method of the doxology in Scriptures?
3. The doxology starts with the word, “for.” What does it mean?
4. What relationship does the kingdom in the doxology have with the Lord’s Prayer?
5. What relationship does the power in the doxology have with the Lord’s Prayer?
6. What relationship does the glory in the doxology have with the Lord’s Prayer?
7. What relationship does the phrase, “for Thine is” in the doxology have with the Lord’s Prayer?
8. How is Amen in the doxology applied in the Scriptures and what relationship does it have with the Lord’s Prayer?
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